Introduction to digital prototyping tech
This module presents state-of-the-art technology for 3D design and printing and gives some links to other sources, where one can find more information in this fields. AUTHOR OF THE MODULE: Stavroula Sokoli
- 1. About 3D design and printing
- 2. 3D design software – Introduction
- 3. 3D design software – Blender
- 4. 3D design software – SketchUp
- 5. 3D design software – TinkerCAD
- 6. 3D design software – FreeCAD
- 7. 3D design software – Slicing
- 8. 3D Printers – Introduction
- 9. 3D Printers – FDM 3D printing
- 10. 3D Printers – Different kinds of filament
- 11. 3D Printers – Geometry restrictions
- 12. 3D Printers – Finishing 3D printouts
- 13. Online courses
This module focuses on implementation of the 3D design and printing in present artisans work. The field of artisanship is very vast and it is not possible to analyse (as well as make a list) all the jobs that can be defined as "artisans". We have chosen for this module the most characteristic fields then. After recalling the most important information regarding 3D modelling and printing, we present in details, how 3D technology changes jewellery-making process. We give also some hints regarding implementation of this innovation in other handicraft works, like those using leather, wood, metal, glass and ceramics as raw materials. The artisan production is closely connected with other sectors, and we have to consider that the development of 3D modelling allows a greater integration of these fields with undeniable benefits in all sectors. For this reason, the field of architecture and interior design in which artisan production is a strategic factor has been also considered as an example. AUTHORS OF THE MODULE: Enrico Ferranti, Mario Paiano, Letizia Di Pillo
- 1. Metallo Nobile Manifesto
- 2. Recent developments in the craft field advanced by new digital technology
- 3. Digital 3D modelling as a part of artisan’s work
- 4. 3D printing process
- 5. 3D modelling and printing in a craft field – conclusions
- 6. Exemplary case: the goldsmith’s art – Introduction
- 7. Goldsmith’s art – Iter produce of a florentine style ring – traditional vs 3D supported
- 8. The modern goldsmith’s workshop
- 9. New artisan working methods – Leather
- 10. New artisan working methods – Molds
- 11. New artisan working methods – Shoemaking
- 12. New artisan working methods – Restoration
- 13. New artisan working methods – Glass
- 14. New artisan working methods – Ceramics
- 15. 3D Printing in architectural field – benefits
- 16. 3D Printing in architectural field – communication and analysis
- 17. 3D Printing in architectural field – opposed model making
- 18. 3D Printing in architectural field – simplification and sustainability
Youth creativity in the digital age
The aim of Module III is to present one of the possibilities, how the Module I and Module II can be implemented in small makerspace for and with young people interested in different implementations of 3D modeling and printing techniques. On the basis of workshops run in our 3D laboratory in Wadowice, we prepared practical lessons on how to introduce this interesting subject to your students or lab members. Following the lessons you will get information on how to start teaching 3D design and printing and what steps you can take in order to encourage people to create their own models. We are presenting here examples of specific activities on several different subjects and requiring specific skills going beyond 3D design. Finally we are giving here some tips on evaluating the process and showing potential advantages of learning 3D techniques for entrepreneurship possibilities. AUTHOR OF THE MODULE: Łukasz Putyra
- 1. How to start an adventure with 3D design and 3D printing – theoretical introduction
- 2. How to start an adventure with 3D design and 3D printing – practice
- 3. First steps in 3D printing – models from the database
- 4. First steps in 3D printing – redesigning existing models
- 5. First steps in 3D printing – 2D-3D transformations
- 6. Experimenting with 3D printing – tutorial based ukulele
- 7. 3D Printing in artistic design – Star Guardian Janna costume
- 8. 3D Printing in artistic design – New Year’s masks
- 9. 3D Printing in robotics – OTTO DIY
- 10. 3D Printing of electronics – drone parts
- 11. 3D Printing of electronics – drones
- 12. Entrepreneurial advancements of 3D printing technique
- 13. Feedback and evaluation methods
8. 3D Printers – Introduction
3D printers build objects using a process known as additive manufacturing. Material is put down in layers; each layer adds to the previous layer and in turn becomes a base for the next layer.
Image 8.1. [source]
There are many types of 3D printing technologies available. Refer to the following list by https://www.3yourmind.com/blog/what-is-3d-printing for an overview:
– Binder Jetting: Inkjet print heads apply a liquid bonding agent onto thin layers of powder. By gluing the particles together, the part is built up layer by layer.
– Electron Beam Melting: A thin layer of metal powder is selectively melted by an electron beam. The parts are built up layer by layer in the powder bed.
– Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM): A plastic filament is melted and extruded through a nozzle. Parts are built by laying down layer-by-layer.
– Laser Melting: A thin layer of metal powder is selectively melted by a laser. The parts are built up layer by layer in the powder bed.
– Laser Sintering: A thin layer of plastic powder is selectively melted by a laser. The parts are built up layer by layer in the powder bed.
– Material Jetting: Inkjet print heads are used to jet melted wax materials onto a build platform. The material cools and solidifies which allows to build layers on top of each other.
– Photopolymer Jetting: Inkjet print heads are used to jet liquid photopolymers onto a build platform. The material is immediately cured by UV lamps and solidified which allows to build layers on top of each other.
– Stereolithography: A UV laser is curing a liquid photopolymer in a vat. The part is built by lowering the build platform into the vat.
Image 8.2. Some 3D printing technologies [source]
Most 3D printers in the consumer market use thermoplastic inks in the printing process. These polymers become soft and pliable within a temperature range and then re-solidify when allowed to cool.
Image 8.3. A functional diagram of a 3D printer [source]
The print bed is where the object is printed. It’s usually covered with an adhesive material, and with some inks it also needs to be heated in order to minimize distortion in the printed object. The extruder temperature may be set manually, depending on the model; the nozzle position is controlled by the microcontroller, which is directed by commands in the print file.
Some printers incorporate USB ports to read files from USB drives; other printers interface to external computers, which may be running 3D print monitor and control applications. The microcontroller positions the nozzle at the X, Y, and Z coordinates needed and a specific amount of ink is set. High-precision 3D printers produce minimal wasted material.
Image 8.4. The typical parts of a 3D printer [source]
For the purposes of this introduction we will focus on FDM printers (note: FDM technology is often referred to as FFF —Fused Filament Fabrication— instead).
FDM is the most widely used 3D printing technology: it represents the largest installed base of 3D printers globally and is often the first technology people are exposed to.
In this article, the basic principles and the key aspects of the technology are presented. For an extensive 3D Printer guide, you could check the following article.