Introduction to digital prototyping tech
This module presents state-of-the-art technology for 3D design and printing and gives some links to other sources, where one can find more information in this fields. AUTHOR OF THE MODULE: Stavroula Sokoli
- 1. About 3D design and printing
- 2. 3D design software – Introduction
- 3. 3D design software – Blender
- 4. 3D design software – SketchUp
- 5. 3D design software – TinkerCAD
- 6. 3D design software – FreeCAD
- 7. 3D design software – Slicing
- 8. 3D Printers – Introduction
- 9. 3D Printers – FDM 3D printing
- 10. 3D Printers – Different kinds of filament
- 11. 3D Printers – Geometry restrictions
- 12. 3D Printers – Finishing 3D printouts
- 13. Online courses
This module focuses on implementation of the 3D design and printing in present artisans work. The field of artisanship is very vast and it is not possible to analyse (as well as make a list) all the jobs that can be defined as "artisans". We have chosen for this module the most characteristic fields then. After recalling the most important information regarding 3D modelling and printing, we present in details, how 3D technology changes jewellery-making process. We give also some hints regarding implementation of this innovation in other handicraft works, like those using leather, wood, metal, glass and ceramics as raw materials. The artisan production is closely connected with other sectors, and we have to consider that the development of 3D modelling allows a greater integration of these fields with undeniable benefits in all sectors. For this reason, the field of architecture and interior design in which artisan production is a strategic factor has been also considered as an example. AUTHORS OF THE MODULE: Enrico Ferranti, Mario Paiano, Letizia Di Pillo
- 1. Metallo Nobile Manifesto
- 2. Recent developments in the craft field advanced by new digital technology
- 3. Digital 3D modelling as a part of artisan’s work
- 4. 3D printing process
- 5. 3D modelling and printing in a craft field – conclusions
- 6. Exemplary case: the goldsmith’s art – Introduction
- 7. Goldsmith’s art – Iter produce of a florentine style ring – traditional vs 3D supported
- 8. The modern goldsmith’s workshop
- 9. New artisan working methods – Leather
- 10. New artisan working methods – Molds
- 11. New artisan working methods – Shoemaking
- 12. New artisan working methods – Restoration
- 13. New artisan working methods – Glass
- 14. New artisan working methods – Ceramics
- 15. 3D Printing in architectural field – benefits
- 16. 3D Printing in architectural field – communication and analysis
- 17. 3D Printing in architectural field – opposed model making
- 18. 3D Printing in architectural field – simplification and sustainability
Youth creativity in the digital age
The aim of Module III is to present one of the possibilities, how the Module I and Module II can be implemented in small makerspace for and with young people interested in different implementations of 3D modeling and printing techniques. On the basis of workshops run in our 3D laboratory in Wadowice, we prepared practical lessons on how to introduce this interesting subject to your students or lab members. Following the lessons you will get information on how to start teaching 3D design and printing and what steps you can take in order to encourage people to create their own models. We are presenting here examples of specific activities on several different subjects and requiring specific skills going beyond 3D design. Finally we are giving here some tips on evaluating the process and showing potential advantages of learning 3D techniques for entrepreneurship possibilities. AUTHOR OF THE MODULE: Łukasz Putyra
- 1. How to start an adventure with 3D design and 3D printing – theoretical introduction
- 2. How to start an adventure with 3D design and 3D printing – practice
- 3. First steps in 3D printing – models from the database
- 4. First steps in 3D printing – redesigning existing models
- 5. First steps in 3D printing – 2D-3D transformations
- 6. Experimenting with 3D printing – tutorial based ukulele
- 7. 3D Printing in artistic design – Star Guardian Janna costume
- 8. 3D Printing in artistic design – New Year’s masks
- 9. 3D Printing in robotics – OTTO DIY
- 10. 3D Printing of electronics – drone parts
- 11. 3D Printing of electronics – drones
- 12. Entrepreneurial advancements of 3D printing technique
- 13. Feedback and evaluation methods
4. 3D printing process
3D printing is any of various processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object.
Starting with 3D modelling it is possible to create an accurate reproduction of the final product using model automatic production system such CAM (Computer-Aided Manufacturing) which is made up of “Numerical Control Machine” or “Rapid Prototyping”.
Computer numerical control (CNC) or simply numerical control (NC) is the automated control of machining tools (drills, boring tools, lathes) by means of a computer, in which an NC machine operates on a piece of material (metal, plastic, wood, ceramic, or composite) to transform it into precise specifications. It is a process that works by subtraction of material.
“Rapid prototyping is a group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model of a physical part or assembly using three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) data. Construction of the part or assembly is usually done using 3D printing or “additive layer manufacturing” technology. So it is the opposite process as it acts by adding material.
Rapid Prototyping is the most popular technique at this moment, for the low costs and for an unnecessary high awareness of the technical aspects of the printing process.
Image 4.1 [source]
For more information on 3D printing and printers, refer to Module 1: “Introduction to digital prototyping tech”.
Anyway, it is useful to summarize briefly a typical printing process:
Once the digital 3d model is generated:
the steps of rapid prototyping are:
1. Creating the .STL file:
It is a preliminary phase to the actual prototyping and consists in the generation of the .STL file and in its verification. The .STL (Standard Triangulation Language To Layer) file is a graphical standard that describes the object by means of a triangulation decomposition of the surfaces that compose it. In practice, the surfaces of the piece are meshed with triangular elements. Approximately increasing the number of triangles improves the definition of the surface
2. Management of the .STL file:
Once the STL file has been generated, it must be verified that it is free of errors. Once this verification has been carried out, it is possible to perform slicing, ie to generate the “slices” that are placed one on top of the other and give life to the final solid. Slicing is a critical operation because it determines the surface characteristics of the finished object. This operation can be either uniform or adaptive when the thickness of the slices is variable and is chosen according to the curvature of the surface in order to better adapt the final geometry, reducing the staircase effect (the inclined surfaces are approximate from steps).
3. Printing: Construction of the “layer by layer” prototype:
It consists of sending the STL file or the slices, depending on the prototyping model, to the machine and proceeding with the deposition of the material layer by layer until reaching the final object.
Image 4.5. Schematic representation of Stereolithography: a light-emitting device a) (a laser or DLP) selectively illuminates the transparent bottom c) of a tank b) filled with a liquid photo-polymerizing resin. The solidified resin d) is progressively dragged up by a lifting platform e)
4. Post treatments
These are manual operations whose purpose is to remove the object from the machine and clean it from the excess material. As you can see from the process just described, in the management of the printing phase it is not necessary to have a high knowledge of the technical aspects of 3D printing as the process is almost entirely managed by the machines.
As for the use of 3D modeling also the use of 3D printing involves a number of advantages in the production phase.
They can be summarized in:
- – reduction of time in prototype relocation
- – reduction of costs
- – the possibility of screening alternative solutions
- – ease of verification of the actual dimensions
- – increase in the prediction of error
- – modification during construction
- – different materials
- – eco-sustainability due to the reduction of waste in the construction of prototypes
- – easy communication with the use of real objects