Introduction to digital prototyping tech
This module presents state-of-the-art technology for 3D design and printing and gives some links to other sources, where one can find more information in this fields. AUTHOR OF THE MODULE: Stavroula Sokoli
- 1. About 3D design and printing
- 2. 3D design software – Introduction
- 3. 3D design software – Blender
- 4. 3D design software – SketchUp
- 5. 3D design software – TinkerCAD
- 6. 3D design software – FreeCAD
- 7. 3D design software – Slicing
- 8. 3D Printers – Introduction
- 9. 3D Printers – FDM 3D printing
- 10. 3D Printers – Different kinds of filament
- 11. 3D Printers – Geometry restrictions
- 12. 3D Printers – Finishing 3D printouts
- 13. Online courses
This module focuses on implementation of the 3D design and printing in present artisans work. The field of artisanship is very vast and it is not possible to analyse (as well as make a list) all the jobs that can be defined as "artisans". We have chosen for this module the most characteristic fields then. After recalling the most important information regarding 3D modelling and printing, we present in details, how 3D technology changes jewellery-making process. We give also some hints regarding implementation of this innovation in other handicraft works, like those using leather, wood, metal, glass and ceramics as raw materials. The artisan production is closely connected with other sectors, and we have to consider that the development of 3D modelling allows a greater integration of these fields with undeniable benefits in all sectors. For this reason, the field of architecture and interior design in which artisan production is a strategic factor has been also considered as an example. AUTHORS OF THE MODULE: Enrico Ferranti, Mario Paiano, Letizia Di Pillo
- 1. Metallo Nobile Manifesto
- 2. Recent developments in the craft field advanced by new digital technology
- 3. Digital 3D modelling as a part of artisan’s work
- 4. 3D printing process
- 5. 3D modelling and printing in a craft field – conclusions
- 6. Exemplary case: the goldsmith’s art – Introduction
- 7. Goldsmith’s art – Iter produce of a florentine style ring – traditional vs 3D supported
- 8. The modern goldsmith’s workshop
- 9. New artisan working methods – Leather
- 10. New artisan working methods – Molds
- 11. New artisan working methods – Shoemaking
- 12. New artisan working methods – Restoration
- 13. New artisan working methods – Glass
- 14. New artisan working methods – Ceramics
- 15. 3D Printing in architectural field – benefits
- 16. 3D Printing in architectural field – communication and analysis
- 17. 3D Printing in architectural field – opposed model making
- 18. 3D Printing in architectural field – simplification and sustainability
Youth creativity in the digital age
The aim of Module III is to present one of the possibilities, how the Module I and Module II can be implemented in small makerspace for and with young people interested in different implementations of 3D modeling and printing techniques. On the basis of workshops run in our 3D laboratory in Wadowice, we prepared practical lessons on how to introduce this interesting subject to your students or lab members. Following the lessons you will get information on how to start teaching 3D design and printing and what steps you can take in order to encourage people to create their own models. We are presenting here examples of specific activities on several different subjects and requiring specific skills going beyond 3D design. Finally we are giving here some tips on evaluating the process and showing potential advantages of learning 3D techniques for entrepreneurship possibilities. AUTHOR OF THE MODULE: Łukasz Putyra
- 1. How to start an adventure with 3D design and 3D printing – theoretical introduction
- 2. How to start an adventure with 3D design and 3D printing – practice
- 3. First steps in 3D printing – models from the database
- 4. First steps in 3D printing – redesigning existing models
- 5. First steps in 3D printing – 2D-3D transformations
- 6. Experimenting with 3D printing – tutorial based ukulele
- 7. 3D Printing in artistic design – Star Guardian Janna costume
- 8. 3D Printing in artistic design – New Year’s masks
- 9. 3D Printing in robotics – OTTO DIY
- 10. 3D Printing of electronics – drone parts
- 11. 3D Printing of electronics – drones
- 12. Entrepreneurial advancements of 3D printing technique
- 13. Feedback and evaluation methods
11. 3D Printers – Geometry restrictions
Here are presented in brief geometric restrictions that must be considered when determining whether a 3D model is suitable for 3D printing:
11.1 Minimum wall thickness
Often architects or game designers will produce elements in a 3D model that have an infinitesimal thickness (hair, capes, sails etc.). Thin features are impossible to 3D print, unless they are larger than the minimum printable feature size for each technology.
The table below summarizes the recommended minimum wall thickness for the most common 3D printing technologies. Note that in some cases, like SLA/DLP, it is possible to print smaller features, but this should be assessed in a case by case basis, after consulting with the machine operator.
|Method||Recommended Minimum Wall Thickness|
|Material Jetting||1.0 mm|
|Binder Jetting||2.0 mm|
Every 3D model that is intended for 3D printing should be completely manifold (watertight): every edge should be connected to exactly 2 polygons and the model must include no holes.
Models that are not manifold might get misinterpreted by the software that generates the instructions for the 3D printer (slicer). A non-manifold 3D model might cause inconsistent layers, holes or other errors, making the object unprintable.
Non-manifold issues are often not visible at the modeling stage. The simplest way to check whether a model is printable is to use an analyser software, like Netfabb or Meshmixer. These programs detect model features that will cause issues at the 3D printing stage and offer repair options (without impacting the overall geometry of the model).
11.3 Curved surfaces
Most CAD modeling software, such as Solidworks and Fusion360, use Non-uniform Rational Basis Splines (NURBS) to display the surfaces of a 3D model. When exporting your model to the STL file format for 3D printing it is important that an adequate number of polygons are used to represent its surfaces. This will ensure that part will be 3D print with a smooth appearance.
If the 3D model is exported with too few polygons, the edges connecting individual polygons will often be visible in the final 3D printed part. This effect is more prominent with large models (larger than 300 mm3), where the polygons becomes more visible on curved surfaces.
If the 3D model is exported with too many polygons, then its file size will be unnecessarily big, making it difficult to handle, and will have no effect in the final quality of the printed part, as tiny details cannot be 3D printed.
Luckily, most modelling software export 3D models with an adequate number of polygons using the preset, resulting in smooth 3D printed parts. If a higher polygon count is required, the export settings can be adjusted accordingly.
For a more in-depth exposition on file-fixing for 3D printing, please refer to the following articles: